Unit 1 Review: Atomic and Nuclear Chemistry

You will need a periodic table to complete this review.

Choose the correct answer for each question.

CA Standards

The periodic table displays the elements in increasing atomic number and shows how periodicity of the physical and chemical properties of the elements relates to atomic structure. As a basis for understanding this concept:

1) Students know how to relate the position of an element in the periodic table to its atomic number and atomic mass.

2) Students know the nucleus of the atom is much smaller than the atom yet contains most of its mass.

Nuclear processes are those in which an atomic nucleus changes, including radioactive decay of naturally occurring and human-made isotopes, nuclear fission, and nuclear fusion. As a basis for understanding this concept:

1) Students know protons and neutrons in the nucleus are held together by nuclear forces that overcome the electromagnetic repulsion between the protons.

2) Students know the energy release per gram of material is much larger in nuclear fusion or fission reactions than in chemical reactions. The change in mass (calculated by E = mc2) is small but significant in nuclear reactions.

3) Students know some naturally occurring isotopes of elements are radioactive, as are isotopes formed in nuclear reactions.

4) Students know the three most common forms of radioactive decay (alpha, beta, and gamma) and know how the nucleus changes in each type of decay.

5) Students know alpha, beta, and gamma radiation produce different amounts and kinds of damage in matter and have different penetrations.